Liver cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in Thailand. The majority of hepatocellular carcinoma
(HCC) is diagnosed in the intermediate, advanced or terminal stage in which curative treatment is not feasible.
The survival benefit of chemoembolization in intermediate HCC and some selected cases of advanced HCC
was confirmed from two randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis studies. Predictors of outcome are tumor
burden, degree of liver impairment, performance status and treatment response. The ideal candidates for
chemoembolization are those with well-preserved liver function, multinodular tumors without vascular and distant
metastasis. Post-embolization syndrome was found in nearly 80% of patients. New techniques of chemoembolization
with the purpose of reducing the side effects of chemoembolization and increasing efficacy are under investigation.